Acknowledgements

Introduction

Negative Ion Source

Operating Conditions & Procedures

Cathode Preparation

Gas Cathodes

Ionization Efficiency

Source Maintenance & Cleaning

Toxicity of Cathode Materials

Ionization Potentials & Electron Affinities

 A Negative-Ion Cookbook

Roy Middleton   

 

Department Of Physics, University of Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, PA  19104        

October 1989  (Revised February 1990)

 

1H

Hydrogen

 

2He

Helium

3Li

Lithium

4Be

Beryllium

5B

Boron

6C

Carbon

7N

Nitrogen

8O

Oxygen

9F

Fluorine

10Ne

Neon

11Na

Sodium

12Mg

Magnesium

13Al

Aluminum

14Si

Silicon

15P

Phosphorus

16S

Sulfur

17Cl

Chlorine

18Ar

Argon

19K

Potassium

20Ca

Calcium

 

31Ga

Gallium

32Ge

Germanium

33As

Arsenic

34Se

Selenium

35Br

Bromine

36Kr

Krypton

37Rb

Rubidium

38Sr

Strontium

 

49In

Indium

50Sn

Tin

51Sb

Antimony

52Te

Tellurium

53I

Iodine

54Xe

Xenon

55Cs

Cesium

56Ba

Barium

 

81Tl

Thallium

82Pb

Lead

83Bi

Bismuth

84Po

Polonium

85At

Astatine

86Rn

Radon

 

Transition Elements

21Sc

Scandium

22Ti

Titanium

23V

Vanadium

24Cr

Chromium

25Mn

Manganese

26Fe

Iron

27Co

Cobalt

28Ni

Nickel

29Cu

Copper

30Zn

Zinc

39Y

Yttrium

40Zr

Zirconium

41Nb

Niobium

42Mo

Molybdenum

43Tc

Technetium

44Ru

Ruthenium

45Rh

Rhodium

46Pd

Palladium

47Ag

Silver

48Cd

Cadmium

57La

Lanthanum

 

72Hf

Hafnium

73Ta

Tantalum

74W

Tungsten

75Re

Rhenium

76Os

Osmium

77Ir

Iridium

78Pt

Platinum

79Au

Gold

80Hg

Mercury

 

Lanthanides

58Ce

Cerium

59Pr

Praseodymium

60Nd

Neodymium

61Pm

Promethium

62Sm

Samarium

63Eu

Europium

64Gd

Gadolinium

65Tb

Terbium

66Dy

Dysprosium

67Ho

Holmium

68Er

Erbium

69Tm

Thulium

70Yb

Ytterbium

71Lu

Lutetium

 

Actinides

90Th

Thorium

91Pa

Protactinium

92U

Uranium

 

Michael Wiplich at the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared the electronic version of the Negative-Ion Cookbook. The original paper version was converted to electronic form using an H.P. Scanjet 6200C scanner and H.P. Precision-Scan Pro OCR software followed by manual fix up in MS Word 2000 Pro which was also used to convert the document to HTML.

 

Please address any comments, suggestions or corrections to ccarlson@bnl.gov.

 

The Home Page of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator Is Located At http://tvdg10.phy.bnl.gov/.